Combining cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors with endocrine therapy improves outcomes for patients with metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer but its value in earlier-stage patients is unclear. We examined evolutionary trajectories of early-stage breast cancer tumors, using single-cell RNA sequencing of serial biopsies from the FELINE clinical trial of endocrine therapy (letrozole) alone or combined with the CDK inhibitor ribociclib. Despite differences in subclonal diversity evolution across patients and treatments, common resistance phenotypes emerged. Resistant tumors treated with combination therapy showed accelerated loss of estrogen signaling with convergent upregulation of JNK signaling through growth factor receptors. In contrast, cancer cells maintaining estrogen signaling during mono- or combination therapy showed potentiation of CDK4/6 activation and ERK upregulation through ERBB4 signaling. These results indicate that combination therapy in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer leads to emergence of resistance through a shift from estrogen to alternative growth signal-mediated proliferation.