Serial serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and mineral homeostasis in very premature infants fed preterm human milk

Laura S. Hillman, Sharon J. Salmons, Eduardo Slatopolsky, William H. McAlister

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17 Scopus citations


Fourteen very low birthweight infants (mean ± SD 1,070 ± 180 g and 29.3 ± 1.9 weeks gestation) fed their own mother’s milk were clinically followed until 3-4 months of age with frequent measurements of serum calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin, and urine calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. These infants were matched for birthweight and gestation with 14 infants (1,075 ± 152 g and 29.0 ± 1.7 weeks) who had been similarly followed during concomitant studies of infants fed standard formula (Similac 20 cal/oz). Urine phosphorus was markedly lower in the breast milk-fed group from initiation of feedings, and serum phosphorus became significantly lower at and after 6 weeks of age. The fall in serum phosphorus was accompanied by a marked calciuria. Parathyroid hormone was suppressed in the breast milk-fed group, although serum calcium was not elevated and did not differ from formula-fed infants. A high incidence of moderate-severe hypomineralization on radiographs was seen in both breast milk-and formula-fed groups. Six of 14 breast-fed infants required phosphorus supplementation at 8-10 weeks of age because of significant hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and hypomineralization. These infants differed from those not requiring phosphorus supplements by being smaller at birth but not of lower gestation, and having persistently low serum 25-OHD at and after 6 weeks of age.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)762-770
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1985


  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D
  • Breast milk
  • Extreme prematurity
  • Phosphorus


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