Recent advances in molecular genetics and immunocytochemistry have clarified the cell of origin in many renal disorders. Several renal disorders are thought to involve specific segments of the nephron. Renin-secreting tumours arise from juxtaglomerular cells. Clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) recapitulate the epithelium of the proximal tubules. Oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC differentiate towards Type A and Type B intercalated cells of the cortical collecting duct, respectively. Medullary collecting ducts are the target sites for the development of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, collecting duct carcinoma and medullary carcinoma. Renal papillae are susceptible to unique changes such as necrosis or papillitis. The purpose of our article is threefold: to illustrate the imaging findings of renal disorders that show segmental involvement of the nephron, to describe proximal and distal nephron disorders and to correlate imaging findings of some entities with histopathological features.