Scalable and modular wireless-network infrastructure for large-scale behavioural neuroscience

Raza Qazi, Kyle Parker, Choong Yeon Kim, Ruediger Rill, Makenzie R. Norris, Jaeyoon Chung, John Bilbily, Jenny R. Kim, Marie C. Walicki, Graydon B. Gereau, Hyoyoung Lim, Yanyu Xiong, Jenna R. Lee, Melissa A. Tapia, Alexxai V. Kravitz, Matthew J. Will, Sangtae Ha, Jordan McCall, Jae Woong Jeong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The use of rodents to acquire understanding of the function of neural circuits and of the physiological, genetic and developmental underpinnings of behaviour has been constrained by limitations in the scalability, automation and high-throughput operation of implanted wireless neural devices. Here we report scalable and modular hardware and software infrastructure for setting up and operating remotely programmable miniaturized wireless networks leveraging Bluetooth Low Energy for the study of the long-term behaviour of large groups of rodents. The integrated system allows for automated, scheduled and real-time experimentation via the simultaneous and independent use of multiple neural devices and equipment within and across laboratories. By measuring the locomotion, feeding, arousal and social behaviours of groups of mice or rats, we show that the system allows for bidirectional data transfer from readily available hardware, and that it can be used with programmable pharmacological or optogenetic stimulation. Scalable and modular wireless-network infrastructure should facilitate the remote operation of fully automated large-scale and long-term closed-loop experiments for the study of neural circuits and animal behaviour.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)771-786
Number of pages16
JournalNature Biomedical Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


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