Sarcopenia: An endocrine disorder?

Alexis McKee, John E. Morley, Alvin M. Matsumoto, Aaron Vinik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test—the SARC-F—is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and decreased growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine-enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D. In hypogonadal males, testosterone improves muscle mass, strength, and function. Selective androgen receptor molecules and anti-myostatin activin II receptor molecules are under development as possible treatments for sarcopenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1143-1152
Number of pages10
JournalEndocrine Practice
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2017


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