Sarcoma Surveillance: A Review of Current Evidence and Guidelines

Cara A. Cipriano, Eugene Jang, Wakenda Tyler

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


After initial treatment of sarcoma, disease progression may occur in the form of local recurrence, pulmonary metastases, or extrapulmonary metastases. As such, surveillance is an important aspect of management, but no universally accepted practice standards are found. In the absence of strong evidence, and to allow for individualized care, existing guidelines contain flexibility in terms of both the frequency and modality of surveillance. In general, they agree that follow-up should be more intense in the early years after treatment, especially for high-grade sarcomas, and continue for at least 10 years. For local recurrence, data suggest that physical examination is usually sufficient for monitoring; in addition, some guidelines endorse imaging routinely, whereas others only as clinically indicated. For pulmonary metastasis, either radiograph or CT is recommended, with the latter having theoretical advantages but no proven survival benefit to date. Extrapulmonary metastases are rare in most sarcoma types, so the literature only supports extrapulmonary surveillance for certain diagnoses. This topic is complicated by the diversity of sarcomas, the limited evidence, and the indefinite, often conflicting recommendations; therefore, it is critical for providers to understand the existing research and guidelines to determine optimal surveillance strategies for their patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)145-156
Number of pages12
JournalThe Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2020


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