The current salvage therapies for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are unsatisfactory. Over the past 7 years, we have used two salvage regimens: fludarabine, cytarabine, and idarubicin with (FLAG-IM) or without gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) (9 mg/m2 on Day 8) (FLAG-I) in relapsed/refractory AML. Three-quarters of patients also received concurrent G-CSF. Seventy-one patients were treated, 23 with FLAG-I and 48 with FLAG-IM. The median duration of follow-up was 30.6 months. The treatment groups were well balanced with median ages of 48 years (range 18-70) and 47 years (range 20-68), unfavorable cytogenetics in 57% and 35%, prior allogeneic stem cell transplant in 43% and 42%, and CR1 duration <1 year in 60% and 67%, respectively, for FLAG-I and FLAG-IM. The complete remission (CR) rate in the FLAG-I group was 39% with an additional 13% achieving a CRp [overall response rate (ORR) 52%]; the CR rate in the FLAG-IM group was 29% with an additional 27% achieving a CRp (ORR 56%). The median duration of response (DOR; 16.8 vs. 8.3 months), event-free survival (EFS; 7.4 vs. 4.1 months), and overall survival (OS; 8.8 vs. 5.0 months) trended to favor FLAG-I over FLAG-IM. The patients who received G-CSF concurrent with chemotherapy had superior overall response rate (ORR; 62% vs. 29%, P = 0.026), median EFS (6.2 vs. 3.4 months, P = 0.010), and OS (8.8 vs. 3.9 months, P = 0.004) when compared with those who sequentially received G-CSF and chemotherapy, regardless of chemotherapy regimen. The addition of GO, at this dose and schedule, to FLAG-I failed to improve the outcomes in patients with relapsed/refractory AML. The patients who received G-CSF concurrently with chemotherapy had improved outcomes.