Saliva Production and Esophageal Motility Influence Esophageal Acid Clearance Related to Post-reflux Swallow-Induced Peristaltic Wave

Lorenzo Marchetti, Benjamin Rogers, Tricia Hengehold, Daniel Sifrim, C. Prakash Gyawali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) brings salivary bicarbonate to neutralize residual distal esophageal mucosal acidification. Aims: To determine if reduced saliva production and esophageal body hypomotility would compromise PSPW-induced pH recovery in the distal esophagus. Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cross-sectional study, patients with confirmed Sjogren’s syndrome and scleroderma/mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) who underwent high resolution manometry (HRM) and ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring off antisecretory therapy were retrospectively identified. Patients without these disorders undergoing HRM and pH-impedance monitoring for GERD symptoms were identified from the same time-period. Acid exposure time, numbers of reflux episodes and PSPW, pH recovery with PSPW, and HRM metrics were extracted. Univariate comparisons and multivariable analysis were performed to determine predictors of pH recovery with PSPW. Results: Among Sjogren’s syndrome (n = 34), scleroderma/MCTD (n = 14), and comparison patients with reflux symptoms (n = 96), the scleroderma/MCTD group had significantly higher AET, higher prevalence of hypomotility, lower detected reflux episodes, and very low numbers of PSPW (p ≤ 0.004 compared to other groups). There was no difference in pH-impedance metrics between Sjogren’s syndrome, and comparison patients (p ≥ 0.481). Proportions with complete pH recovery with PSPW was lower in Sjogren’s patients compared to comparison reflux patients (p = 0.009), predominantly in subsets with hypomotility (p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, diagnosis of Sjogren’s syndrome, scleroderma/MCTD or neither (p = 0.014) and esophageal hypomotility (p = 0.024) independently predicted lack of complete pH recovery with PSPW, while higher total reflux episodes trended (p = 0.051). Conclusions: Saliva production and motor function are both important in PSPW related pH recovery. Graphical Abstract: (Figure presented.).

Original languageEnglish
JournalDigestive diseases and sciences
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • High resolution manometry
  • pH-impedance monitoring
  • Post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave


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