BACKGROUND: COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for both the mother and fetus. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has significantly reduced the risk for symptomatic disease. Several studies have reported on the safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy, with no adverse effects on the obstetrical outcomes. However, data regarding the obstetrical outcomes following a booster dose of the SARS CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy have not yet to be published. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between the booster dose of the SARS CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy and obstetrical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered between July and October 2021 at a large tertiary medical center. We compared women who received the booster vaccination dose during pregnancy with women who were not vaccinated and with those who only received 2 vaccination doses. Primary outcomes were the incidence of preterm labor and of small for gestational age neonates. Secondary outcomes were other maternal and neonatal complications. A secondary analysis investigating the association between the time from vaccination to delivery and the outcomes was also performed. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: There were 6507 women who met the inclusion criteria: 294 women received 3 doses of the vaccination, 2845 women received only 2 doses, and 3368 were unvaccinated. Patients receiving 3 doses of the vaccine were older and more likely to smoke than unvaccinated patients. No differences were noted among the triple-vaccinated, twice-vaccinated, and unvaccinated groups with regards to preterm birth and the incidence of small for gestational age neonates. Regarding the secondary outcomes, women in the triple-vaccinated group had higher rates of postpartum hemorrhage (9.5% vs 3.21%; P<.001) and gestational diabetes mellitus (12.2% vs 8.3%; P=.02) and were less likely to have hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (0% vs 1.4%; P=.041) than the unvaccinated group. Compared with the twice-vaccinated patients, patients with 3 doses of the vaccine were more likely to experience postpartum hemorrhage (9.5% vs 3.5%; P<.001) and were less likely to have a low umbilical artery pH (0.7% vs 6.1%; P<.001). In the sensitivity analysis comparing patients who delivered within 2 weeks of the third vaccination dose (n=53) with those who delivered at least 6 weeks after vaccination (n=96), there were no differences in the rates of small for gestational age neonates, preterm birth, postpartum hemorrhage, or cesarean delivery. CONCLUSION: Receiving the booster dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy was not associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes when compared with unvaccinated or twice-vaccinated women. However, higher rates of postpartum hemorrhage were observed. Further studies on a larger scale are needed to confirm these findings.
- preterm birth
- small for gestational age