Objective: The aim of this study was to ascertain the safety and efficacy of bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction of the pulmonary artery in patients who had undergone induction chemotherapy for lung cancer. Methods: Between January 1991 and July 1996, we operated on 68 patients who had received three cycles of cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy. In 27 of these cases, we performed a lobectomy (n = 25) or bilobectomy (n = 2) associated with reconstruction of the bronchus, the pulmonary artery, or both. In only five additional patients, pneumonectomy had to be carried out. Before chemotherapy, 14 patients were in stage IIIA and 13 were in stage IIIB. All patients in stage IIiB had T4 disease; no N3 cases were included. At thoracotomy, one patient had no evidence of tumor, six were in stage I, 13 were in stage II, six were in stage IIIA, and one was in stage IIIB. Sixteen patients had epidermoid carcinoma and 11 had adenocarcinoma. Results: Sixteen patients underwent bronchial sleeve resection; 11 had various types of pulmonary artery reconstruction, associated with the bronchial sleeve in eight cases. In 26 patients, resection was radical with histologically negative margins. Neither bronchial complications nor deaths occurred. One patient had empyema and two had wound infections. Mean chest tube duration was 6 days. After a postoperative follow-up of 4 to 69 months (mean 25 months), 14 patients are alive and free of disease, one is alive with disease, and 12 have died. There were no local recurrences. The 1- and 4- year survival rates are 78% and 39%, respectively. Conclusions: Although it is technically demanding, lobectomy associated with bronchovascular reconstruction is feasible, with good immediate and long-term results, after induction chemotherapy.