S100A8 and S100A9 are multifunctional proteins that can initiate various signaling pathways and modulate cell function both inside and outside immune cells, depending on their receptors, mediators, and molecular environment. They have been reported as dysregulated genes and proteins in a wide range of cancers, including hematologic malignancies, from diagnosis to response to therapy. The role of S100A8 and S100A9 in hematologic malignancies is highlighted due to their ability to work together or as antagonists to modify cell phenotype, including viability, differentiation, chemosensitivity, trafficking, and transcription strategies, which can lead to an oncogenic phase or reduced symptoms. In this review article, we discuss the critical roles of S100A8, S100A9, and calprotectin (heterodimer or heterotetramer forms of S100A8 and S100A9) in forming and promoting the malignant bone marrow microenvironment. We also focus on their potential roles as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in various stages of hematologic malignancies from diagnosis to treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13382
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • S100A8
  • S100A9
  • calprotectin
  • hematologic malignancies
  • signal transduction


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