Epidemiological results revealed that there is an inverse correlation between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and risks of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Mounting evidence supports that HDLs are atheroprotective, therefore, many therapeutic approaches have been developed to increase HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Nevertheless, HDL-raising therapies, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, failed to ameliorate cardiovascular outcomes in clinical trials, thereby casting doubt on the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by increasing HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-targeted interventional studies were shifted to increasing the number of HDL particles capable of promoting ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux. One such approach was the development of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles that promote ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from lipid-enriched macrophages. Here, we explore the manipulation of rHDL nanoparticles as a strategy for the treatment of CVD. In addition, we discuss technological capabilities and the challenge of relating preclinical in vivo mice research to clinical studies. Finally, by drawing lessons from developing rHDL nanoparticles, we also incorporate the viabilities and advantages of the development of a molecular imaging probe with HDL nanoparticles when applied to ASCVD, as well as gaps in technology and knowledge required for putting the HDL-targeted therapeutics into full gear.
- Apolipoproteins and inflammatory properties
- Cardiovascular disease
- Molecular imaging
- Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein