Reperfusion of ATP-depleted tissues after warm or cold ischemia causes pH-dependent necrotic and apoptotic cell death. In hepatocytes and other cell types as well, the mechanism underlying this reperfusion-induced cell death involves onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Opening of permeability transition (PT) pores in the mitochondrial inner membrane initiates the MPT, an event blocked by cyclosporin A (CsA) and pH less than 7.4. Thus, both acidotic pH and CsA prevent MPT-dependent reperfusion injury. Glycine also blocks reperfusion-induced necrosis but acts downstream of PT pore opening by stabilizing the plasma membrane. After the MPT, ATP availability from glycolysis or other source determines whether cell injury after reperfusion progresses to ATP depletion-dependent necrosis or ATP-requiring apoptosis. Thus, apoptosis and necrosis after reperfusion share a common pathway, the MPT. Cell injury progressing to either necrosis or apoptosis by shared pathways can be more aptly termed necrapoptosis.