Role of Sex in the Association of Socioeconomic Status With Cardiovascular Health in Black Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

Joshua J. Joseph, Amaris Williams, Rosevine A. Azap, Songzhu Zhao, Guy Brock, David Kline, James B. Odei, Randi Foraker, Mario Sims, Laprincess C. Brewer, Darrell M. Gray, Timiya S. Nolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with cardiovascular health (CVH). Potential differences by sex in this association remain incompletely understood in Black Americans, where SES disparities are posited to be partially responsible for cardiovascular inequities. The association of SES measures (income, education, occupation, and insurance) with CVH scores was examined in the Jackson Heart Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: American Heart Association CVH components (non–high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, diet, tobacco use, physical activity, sleep, glycemia, and body mass index) were scored cross-sectionally at baseline (scale: 0–100). Differences in CVH and 95% CIs (Estimate, 95% CI) were calculated using linear regression, adjusting for age, sex, and discrimination. Heterogeneity by sex was assessed. Participants had a mean age of 54.8 years (SD 12.6 years), and 65% were women. Lower income, education, occupation (non-management/professional versus management/professional occupations), and insurance status (uninsured, Medicaid, Veterans Affairs, or Medicare versus private insurance) were associated with lower CVH scores (all P<0.01). There was heterogeneity by sex, with greater magnitude of associations of SES measures with CVH in women versus men. The lowest education level (<high school) versus highest (>high school) was associated with 8.8-point lower (95% CI: −10.2 to −7.3) and 5.4-point lower (95% CI: −7.2 to −3.6) CVH scores in women and men, respectively (interaction P=0.003). The lowest (<25 000) versus highest level of income (≥$75 000) was associated with a greater reduction in CVH scores in women than men (interaction P=0.1142). CONCLUSIONS: Among Black Americans, measures of SES were associated with CVH, with a greater magnitude in women compared with men for education and income. Interventions aimed to address CVH through SES should consider the role of sex.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere030695
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume12
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Black American
  • Life’s Essential 8
  • cardiovascular health
  • education
  • health equity
  • income
  • socioeconomic status

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