These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels and activation of the calcium ion- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C were required for the induction of macrophage tumoricidal activity by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Phenothiazines and R24571, known antagonists of calcium-binding proteins and therefore nonspecific inhibitors of protein kinase C, blocked in a dose-dependent manner the induction of macrophage cytocidal activity by either natural or recombinant IFN-γ. Macrophages depleted of intracellular Ca2+ by chelation with Quin 2, were also unresponsive to IFN-γ. These treatments effected neither the binding of IFN-γ to its cell surface receptor nor the normal intracellular processing of IFN-γ. Activators of protein kinase C (such as phorbol esters) and Ca2+ ionophores when added alone did not effect the activation state of the macrophage population. However, macrophages exposed to both drugs in combination were elevated into the primed activation state such that in the presence of a second signal (lipopolysaccharide or heat killed Listeria monocytogenes), the cells were triggered to express full levels of tumoricidal activity. The capacity of phorbol esters to induce cellular activation correlated with their ability to bind and to activate protein kinase C. No synergistic effect was observed between IFN-γ and protein kinase C activators and/or Ca2+ ionophores, indicating that the drugs could only prime and could not trigger macrophages for tumor cell killing. These results thus support the concept that protein kinase C activation and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ are essential steps in the pathway of IFN-γ-dependent induction of nonspecific tumoricidal activity in macrophages.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - 1986|