Herein we characterized various genetic markers and the biological behavior of a natural recombinant strain of Toxoplasma gondii (P-Br). From nine genetic markers analyzed, three (B1, ROP1, and SAG1) and three (cS10-A6, GRA6, and SAG3) markers belong to parasites from the type I and type III lineages, respectively. The SAG2 and L363 loci were shown to be type I-III chimera alleles. The cB21-4 microsatellite marker showed a unique haplotype. The P-Br strain presented low virulence in the acute phase of infection and was cystogenic during the chronic infection. The interleukin 12/gamma interferon axis and inducible nitric oxide synthase were main determinants of resistance during the acute infection with the P-Br strain. As opposed to infection with the type II strain of T. gondii (ME-49), peroral infection with the P-Br strain led only to a light inflammatory infiltrate and no major lesions in the intestine of the C57BL/6 mice. In addition, the BALB/c (resistant to ME-49) and C57BL/6 (susceptible to ME-49) mice were shown, respectively, to be more susceptible and more resistant to cyst formation and toxoplasmic encephalitis when infected with the P-Br strain. Further, the C57BL/KsJ and DBA2/J congenic strains containing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype "d" were more resistant than the parental strains (C57BL/6 and DBA1/J), when infected with the ME-49 but not with the P-Br strain. Together, our results indicate that resistance to cyst formation and toxoplasmic encephalitis induced during infection with P-Br is not primarily controlled by the MHC haplotype d, as previously reported for type II strains of T. gondii.