Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage and is responsible for most cerebrovascular deaths with high mortality and morbidity. Initial hemorrhage severity and secondary brain injury due to early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia are the major determinants of outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Several therapies have been explored to prevent these secondary brain injury processes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with limited clinical success. Experimental and clinical studies have shown a neuropro-tective role of certain anesthetics in cerebrovascular disorders including aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The vast majority of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients require general anesthesia for surgical or endovascular repair of their aneurysm. Given the potential impact certain anesthetics have on secondary brain injury after SAH, appropriate selection of anesthetics may prove impactful on overall outcome of these patients. This narrative review focuses on the available evidence of anesthetics and their adjuvants in neurovascular protection in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and discusses current impact on clinical care and future investigative directions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6550
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number12
StatePublished - Jun 2 2021


  • Anesthetic adjuvants
  • Anesthetics
  • Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Delayed cerebral ischemia
  • Early brain injury
  • Neurological outcomes
  • Neurovascular protection


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