Purpose: With external beam radiation therapy, uncertainties in treatment planning and delivery can result in an undesirable dose distribution delivered to the patient that can compromise the benefit of treatment. Techniques including geometric margins and probabilistic optimization have been used effectively to mitigate the effects of uncertainties. However, their broad application is inconsistent and can compromise the conclusions derived from cross-technique and cross-modality comparisons. Methods and Materials: Conventional methods to deal with treatment planning and delivery uncertainties are described, and robustness analysis is presented as a framework that is applicable across treatment techniques and modalities. Results: This report identifies elements that are imperative to include when conducting a robustness analysis and describing uncertainties and their dosimetric effects. Conclusion: The robustness analysis approach described here is presented to promote reliable plan evaluation and dose reporting, particularly during clinical trials conducted across institutions and treatment modalities.