Purpose: To compare the outcomes of robotic radical nephroureterectomy (RRNU) and laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LRNU) within a large multi-institutional worldwide dataset. Materials and Methods: The ROBotic surgery for Upper tract Urothelial cancer STudy (ROBUUST) includes data from 17 centers worldwide regarding 877 RRNU and LRNU performed between 2015 and 2019. Baseline features, perioperative and oncologic outcomes, were included. A 2:1 nearest-neighbor propensity-score matching with a 0.001 caliper was performed. A univariable and a multivariable logistic regression model were built to evaluate the predictors of a composite "tetrafecta"outcome defined as occurrence of bladder cuff excision+LND+no complications+negative surgical margins. Results: After matching, 185 RRNU and 91 LRNU were assessed. Patients in the RRNU group were more likely to undergo bladder cuff excision (81.9% vs 63.7%; p < 0.001) compared to the LRNU group. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of overall postoperative complications (p = 0.003) and length of stay (p < 0.001) in favor of RRNU. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that LRNU was an independent predictor negatively associated with achievement of "tetrafecta"(odds ratio: 0.09; p = 0.003). Conclusions: In general, RRNU and LRNU offer comparable outcomes. While the rate of overall complications is higher for LRNU in this study population, this is mostly related to low-grade complications, and therefore with more limited clinical relevance. RRNU seems to offer shorter hospital stay, but this might also be related to the different geographical location of participating centers. Overall, the implementation of robotics might facilitate achievement of a "tetrafecta"outcome as defined in the present study.
- Radical nephroureterectomy