Risk Stratification of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Thyroid Nodules Based on ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System

Gabriel J. Felder, Muhammad Naeem, Waleed Shady, Anup S. Shetty, Tyler J. Fraum, Malak Itani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules is often requested based on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake regardless of sonographic features. The purpose of this study is to determine the risk of malignancy in FDG-avid thyroid nodules when stratified according to the ACR Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS). Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent ultrasound-guided FNA between January 1, 2010, and November 19, 2018, and PET/CT within 1 year before the FNA. In all, 170 nodules in 166 patients (65 men, 101 women, age 60.2 ± 14.3 years) were eligible for inclusion, of which 151 had a clearly benign or malignant histology. PET images were reviewed for maximum standardized uptake value and nodule location. Sonographic features and TI-RADS category were determined by three radiologists. Patient charts were reviewed for histology. Statistical analyses included risk of malignancy in FDG-avid nodules within each TI-RADS category. Results: Of the 151 nodules, 52 were malignant (34.4%). Malignancy risk was 0% in 1 TR1 nodule (compared with 0.3% in the published TI-RADS study), 16.7% in 6 TR2 nodules (compared with 1.5%), 13.2% in 38 TR3 nodules (compared with 4.8%), 23.7% in 59 TR4 nodules (compared with 9.1%), and 68.1% in 47 TR5 nodules (compared with 35.0%). Discussion: The majority (71%, 121 of 170) of FDG-avid thyroid nodules are TR4 and TR5, with rates of malignancy greater than those in the general TI-RADS population. ACR TI-RADS is helpful in stratification of FDG-avid nodules; the risk of malignancy in sonographically low-suspicion nodules (13.3%, 6 of 45) is significantly lower than high-suspicion nodules (43.4%, 46 of 106, P < .001).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)388-394
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • ACR TI-RADS
  • FDG-avid
  • PET
  • thyroid nodule
  • ultrasound

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