Objectives:Vedolizumab is increasingly used to treat patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), however, its safety during the perioperative period remains unclear. We compared the 30-day postoperative complications among patients treated preoperatively with vedolizumab, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents or non-biological therapy.Methods:The retrospective study cohort was comprised of patients receiving vedolizumab, anti-TNF-α agents or non-biological therapy within 4 weeks of surgery. The rates of 30-day postoperative complications were compared between groups using univariate and multivariate analysis. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to compare the outcome between groups.Results:Among 443 patients (64 vedolizumab, 129 anti-TNF-α agents, and 250 non-biological therapy), a total of 144 patients experienced postoperative complications (32%). In multivariate analysis, age >65 (odds ratio (OR) 3.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-9.76) and low-albumin (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.28-4.00) were associated with increased risk of 30-day postoperative complications. For infectious complications, steroid use (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.57-8.57, P=0.003) and low hemoglobin (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.32-6.96, P=0.009) were associated with increased risk in multivariate analysis. Propensity score matched analysis demonstrated that the risks of postoperative complications were not different among patients preoperatively receiving vedolizumab, anti-TNF-α agents or non-biological therapy (UC, P=0.40; CD, P=0.35).Conclusions:In the present study, preoperative vedolizumab exposure did not affect the risk of 30-day postoperative complications in UC and CD. Further, larger studies are required to confirm our findings.