Risk factors in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for conversion to open cholecystectomy

J. R. Sanabria, S. Gallinger, R. Croxford, S. M. Strasberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Most cholecystectomies can be performed using a laparoscopic approach. However, 3 to 10 percent of laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) must be converted to open cholecystectomies (OC) and preoperative factors that predict risk for conversion are still not defined. STUDY DESIGN: Preoperative and intraoperative data were collected and analyzed from 628 patients who were scheduled for selective LC by two surgeons in an academic institution. Logistic regression was performed on data from two groups of patients: LC completed, 596 patients (95 percent) and LC converted, 32 patients (5 percent). RESULTS: Elective LC was accomplished with no common bile duct injuries, low morbidity rate (7.3 percent), and zero mortality rate. Both patient and surgeon factors predicted conversion from LC to OC. Older patients (65 years of age or older, (p<0.01), males (p<0.01), and patients with multiple attacks (ten or more) of biliary colic (p<0.01), or a documented history of acute cholecystitis (p<0.01) had a greater risk for conversion. Both surgeons had higher rates of conversion (p<0.05) during the learning phase (fewer than 50 LC) of their experience. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for conversion may be predicted and awareness of these factors should help in the selection of the appropriate procedure for patients and in selection of cases for resident training.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-704
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1994


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