Risk Factors for Suboptimal Outcome of FAI Surgery in the Adolescent Patient


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Background: Surgical treatment for adolescent patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is increasing. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes of FAI surgery in a multicenter cohort of adolescent patients and to identify predictors of suboptimal outcomes. Methods: One hundred twenty-six adolescent hips (114 patients < 18 years of age) undergoing surgery for symptomatic FAI were studied from a larger multicenter cohort. The group included 74 (58.7%) female and 52 male hips (41.3%) with a mean age of 16.1 (range 11.3 to 17.8). Clinical outcomes included the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (5 domains), and University of California Los Angeles activity score. Failure was defined as revision surgery or clinical failure (inability to reach minimally clinical important differences or patient acceptable symptoms state for the mHHS). Statistical analysis was used to identify factors significantly associated with failure. Results: There was clinically important improvement in all patient-reported outcomes for the overall group, but an 18.3% failure rate. This included a revision rate of 8.7%. Females were significantly more likely than males to be classified as a failure (25.7 vs. 7.7%, P=0.01), in part because of lower preoperative mHHS (59.1 vs. 67.0, P< 0.001). Mild cam deformity (alpha angle <55 degrees) was present in 42.5% of female hips compared with 17.3% male hips. Higher alpha angles were inversely correlated with failure. Alpha angles >63 have a failure rate of 8.3%, between 55 and 63 degrees, 12.0% failure rate, and <55 degrees (mild cam) failure rate of 37.5%. Patients who participated in athletics had a 10.3% failure rate compared with nonathletes at 25.0% (P=0.03, RR (relative risk) 2.4). Conclusions: Adolescent patients undergoing surgical treatment for FAI generally demonstrate significant improvement. However, female sex, mild cam deformities, and lack of sports participation are independently associated with higher failure rates. These factors should be considered in surgical decision-making and during patient counseling. Level of Evidence: Level III - retrospective comparative study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-146
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024


  • FAI
  • adolescent
  • cam
  • outcomes
  • sex


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