Background: Strabismus is common in children after glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation, but the risk factors for postoperative strabismus remain speculative. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible risk factors for strabismus following GDD implantation for refractory childhood glaucoma. Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent GDD implantation for refractory childhood glaucoma at Duke Eye Center from 2005 to 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Pre- and postoperative motility and alignment, best-corrected visual acuity, and demographic and surgical data were extracted from the record for analysis. Results: A total of 81 patients (mean age, 7.9 ± 4.8 years) met inclusion criteria. The most common glaucoma type was glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS), and the most common GDD was a Baerveldt 250 mm2 device. Before GDD surgery, 38 patients (47%) had documented strabismus. After GDD implantation, 25 (31%) had new or worsened strabismus, with vertical (16% of new/worsened), horizontal strabismus (exotropia, 48% of new/worsened; esotropia, 12% of new/worsened) and vertical and horizontal (24% of new/worsened) noted. New motility limitation occurred in 32 of 81 (40%) patients. Risk factors including age, type/location/number of GDD, revision, motility limitation, glaucoma type, asymmetric visual acuity, and visual impairment were not significantly associated with new or worsened post-GDD strabismus. Conclusions: Children with refractory childhood glaucoma are at high risk for strabismus, which increases after GDD implantation; this study identified no clear risk factors for new or worsened post-GDD strabismus.