Risk factors for neurocognitive impairment, emotional distress, and poor quality of life in survivors of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

Ellen van der Plas, Himani Darji, Deo K. Srivastava, Melissa Schapiro, Donna Jeffe, Stephanie Perkins, Rebecca Howell, Wendy Leisenring, Gregory T. Armstrong, Kevin Oeffinger, Kevin Krull, Kim Edelstein, Robert J. Hayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Prevalence and risk of poor psychological outcomes following rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are not well-established. Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional, case-control study (n = 713 survivors, 42.5% female; mean [SD] age, 30.5 [6.6] years; n = 706 siblings, 57.2% female; mean age, 32.8,[7.9] years) completed measures of neurocognition, emotional distress, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Multivariable logistic regression models identified treatments, health behaviors, and chronic conditions associated with impairment. Results: Relative to siblings, more survivors reported neurocognitive impairment (task efficiency: 21.1% vs. 13.7%, emotional regulation: 16.7% vs. 11.0%, memory: 19.3% vs. 15.1%), elevated emotional distress (somatic distress: 12.9% vs. 4.7%, anxiety: 11.7% vs. 5.9%, depression: 22.8% vs. 16.9%) and poorer HRQOL (physical functioning: 11.1% vs. 2.8%, role functioning due to physical problems: 16.8% vs. 8.2%, pain: 17.5% vs. 10.0%, vitality: 22.3% vs. 13.8%, social functioning: 14.4% vs. 6.8%, emotional functioning: 17.1% vs. 10.6%). Cranial radiation increased risk for impaired task efficiency (odds ratio [OR], 2.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–4.63), whereas chest and pelvic radiation predicted increased risk of physical functioning (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.16–6.21 and OR, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.70–6.95, respectively). Smoking was associated with impaired task efficiency (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.14–3.70), memory (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.26–3.95), anxiety (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.36–5.41) and depression (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.01–3.11). Neurologic conditions increased risk of anxiety (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.04–5.10), and hearing conditions increased risk of depression (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.05–3.03). Neurologic and hearing conditions, respectively, were associated with impaired memory (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.20–4.95 and OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.05–3.35) and poor health perception (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.62–1.28 and OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.34–4.06). Conclusions: RMS survivors are at significant risk for poor psychological outcomes. Advancing therapies for local control, smoking cessation, and managing chronic medical conditions may mitigate poor outcomes following RMS.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCancer
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • cognition
  • psychological distress
  • quality of life
  • rhabdomyosarcoma
  • surveys and questionnaires
  • survivorship

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