Risk Factors for Increased Stent-associated Symptoms Following Ureteroscopy for Urinary Stones: Results from STENTS

Urinary Stone Disease Research Network, Alana C. Desai, H. Henry Lai, Alana Desai, Kefu Du

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose:The STudy to Enhance uNderstanding of sTent-associated Symptoms sought to identify risk factors for pain and urinary symptoms, as well as how these symptoms interfere with daily activities after ureteroscopy for stone treatment.Materials and Methods:This prospective observational cohort study enrolled patients aged ≥12 years undergoing ureteroscopy with ureteral stent for stone treatment at 4 clinical centers. Participants reported symptoms at baseline; on postoperative days 1, 3, 5; at stent removal; and day 30 post-stent removal. Outcomes of pain intensity, pain interference, urinary symptoms, and bother were captured with multiple instruments. Multivariable analyses using mixed-effects linear regression models were identified characteristics associated with increased stent-associated symptoms.Results:A total of 424 participants were enrolled. Mean age was 49 years (SD 17); 47% were female. Participants experienced a marked increase in stent-associated symptoms on postoperative day 1. While pain intensity decreased ∼50% from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 5, interference due to pain remained persistently elevated. In multivariable analysis, older age was associated with lower pain intensity (P =.004). Having chronic pain conditions (P <.001), prior severe stent pain (P =.021), and depressive symptoms at baseline (P <.001) were each associated with higher pain intensity. Neither sex, stone location, ureteral access sheath use, nor stent characteristics were drivers of stent-associated symptoms.Conclusions:In this multicenter cohort, interference persisted even as pain intensity decreased. Patient factors (eg, age, depression) rather than surgical factors were associated with symptom intensity. These findings provide a foundation for patient-centered care and highlight potential targets for efforts to mitigate the burden of stent-associated symptoms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)971-980
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2023


  • pain, urinary calculi
  • patient outcome assessment
  • stents
  • ureteroscopy


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