Objective. Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with increased cost, morbidity, and technical challenge compared to primary THA. A better understanding of the risk factors for early revision is needed to inform strategies to optimize patient outcomes. Methods. A total of 207,256 patients who underwent primary THA between 1997-2005 in California and New York were identified from statewide databases. Unique patient identifiers were used to identify early revision THA (<10 years from index procedure). Patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, insurance type, and preoperative diagnosis), community characteristics (education level, poverty, and population density), and hospital characteristics (annual THA volume, bed size, and teaching status) were evaluated using multivariable regression to determine risk factors for early revision. Results. The probabilities of undergoing early aseptic revision and early septic revision were 4% and <1% at 5 years, respectively. Women were 29% less likely than men to undergo early septic revision (P < 0.001). Patients with Medicaid and Medicare were 91% and 24%, respectively, more likely to undergo early septic revision than privately insured patients (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Hospitals performing <200 THAs annually had a 34% increased risk of early aseptic revision compared to hospitals performing >400 THAs annually (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A number of identifiable factors, including younger age, Medicaid, and low hospital volume, increase the risk of undergoing early revision THA. Patient-level characteristics distinctly affect the risk of revision within 10 years, particularly if due to infection. Our findings reinforce the need for continued investigation of the predictors of early failure following THA.