Risk Factors Associated with Infections and Need for Permanent Cerebrospinal Fluid Diversion in Pediatric Intensive Care Patients with Externalized Ventricular Drains

Alexis A. Topjian, Amber Stuart, Alyssa A. Pabalan, Ashleigh Clair, Todd J. Kilbaugh, Nicholas S. Abend, Robert A. Berg, Gregory G. Heuer, Phillip B. Storm, Jimmy W. Huh, Stuart H. Friess

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Externalized ventricular drains (EVDs) are commonly used in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) but few data are available regarding infection rates, infection risks, or factors associated with conversion to permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion.

Methods: Retrospective observational study of patients managed with EVDs admitted to a tertiary care PICU from January 2005 to December 2009.

Results: Three hundred eighty patients were identified. Neurologic diagnostic groups were externalization of existing shunt in 196 patients (52 %), brain tumor in 122 patients (32 %), intracranial hemorrhage in 23 patients (6 %), traumatic brain injury in 17 patients (5 %), meningitis in 9 patients (2 %), or other in 13 patients (3 %). Six percent of all patients (24/380) had new infections associated with EVD management for an infection rate of 8.6 per 1,000 catheter days. The median time to positive cultures was 7 days (interquartile range 4.75, 9) after EVD placement. Patients with EVD infections had significantly longer EVD duration 6 versus 11.5 days (p = 0.0001), and higher maximum EVD outputs 1.9 versus 1.5 mL/kg/h (p = 0.0017). Need for permanent CSF diversion was associated with higher maximum EVD drainage (1.3 vs. 1.6 mL/kg/h p < 0.0001), longer EVD duration (5 vs. 4 days, p < 0.005), and younger age (4.5 vs. 8 years, p < 0.02) but not intracranial hypertension (72 vs. 82 % of patients, p = 0.4).

Conclusions: In our large pediatric cohort, EVD infections were associated with longer EVD duration and higher maximum EVD output. Permanent CSF diversion was more likely in patients with higher maximum EVD drainage, longer EVD duration, and younger age.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-299
Number of pages6
JournalNeurocritical Care
Volume21
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2014

Keywords

  • Externalized ventricular drain
  • Neurocritical care
  • Pediatric
  • Pediatric intensive care unit
  • Ventricular catheter infection
  • Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

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