Risk factors and outcomes of melanoma in children and adolescents: A retrospective multicenter study

Elena B. Hawryluk, Danna Moustafa, Kelly K. Barry, Eman Bahrani, Diana B. Reusch, Meera Brahmbhatt, Lily Chen, Carrie C. Coughlin, Pedram Gerami, Ellen Haddock, Kristen Hook, Stephen R. Humphrey, Pei Chi Kao, Lacey L. Kruse, Leslie P. Lawley, Danny Mansour, Ashfaq A. Marghoob, Julie Nguyen, Thuy L. Phung, Elena PopeTom Raisanen, Sarah Robinson, Tova Rogers, Birgitta Schmidt, Gary Tran, Kate Travis, Zachary Wolner, Wendy B. London, Lawrence F. Eichenfield, Jennifer Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Pediatric melanoma presents with distinct clinical features compared to adult disease. Objective: Characterize risk factors and negative outcomes in pediatric melanoma. Methods: Multicenter retrospective study of patients under 20 years diagnosed with melanoma between January 1, 1995 and June 30, 2015 from 11 academic medical centers. Results: Melanoma was diagnosed in 317 patients, 73% of whom were diagnosed in adolescence (age ≥11). Spitzoid (31%) and superficial spreading (26%) subtypes were most common and 11% of cases arose from congenital nevi. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed in 68% of cases and positive in 46%. Fatality was observed in 7% of cases. Adolescent patients with melanoma were more likely to have family history of melanoma (P = .046) compared to controls. Limitations: Retrospective nature, cohort size, control selection, and potential referral bias. Conclusion: Pediatric melanoma has diverse clinical presentations. Better understanding of these cases and outcomes may facilitate improved risk stratification of pediatric melanoma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)716-726
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • melanoma
  • oncology
  • pediatric dermatology
  • pediatric melanoma


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