Revisiting an old friend: Manganese-based MRI contrast agents

Dipanjan Pan, Shelton D. Caruthers, Angana Senpan, Ann H. Schmieder, Samuel A. Wickline, Gregory M. Lanza

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

160 Scopus citations


Non-invasive cellular and molecular imaging techniques are emerging as a multidisciplinary field that offers promise in understanding the components, processes, dynamics and therapies of disease at a molecular level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an attractive technique due to the absence of radiation and high spatial resolution which makes it advantageous over techniques involving radioisotopes. Typically paramagnetic and superparamagnetic metals are used as contrast materials for MR based techniques. Gadolinium has been the predominant paramagnetic contrast metal until the discovery and association of the metal with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in some patients with severe renal or kidney disease. Manganese was one of the earliest reported examples of paramagnetic contrast material for MRI because of its efficient positive contrast enhancement. In this review manganese based contrast agent approaches will be presented with a particular emphasis on nanoparticulate agents. We have discussed both classically used small molecule based blood pool contrast agents and recently developed innovative nanoparticle-based strategies highlighting a number of successful molecular imaging examples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)162-173
Number of pages12
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2011


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