Review of combination therapies for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

Steven M. Couch, Sophie J. Bakri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


While angiogenesis is one of the factors associated with the development of CNV due to age-related macular degeneration (AMD), inflammation and oxidative stress also appear to play a role. Treatment of CNV with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy is currently the standard of care. However, not all patients respond to monotherapy, and combination therapy may target the CNV through multiple mechanisms, thus reducing treatment frequency or improving visual outcome. Photodynamic therapy (with regular or reduced fluence), as well as intravitreal steroids are used in combination with anti-VEGF therapy. This paper reviews the many clinical trials that have been performed utilizing several combinations of double and triple therapy. While combination therapy is biologically justifiable, further study is required to determine correct combinations and dosage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)114-120
Number of pages7
JournalSeminars in Ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2011


  • anti-vegf
  • avastin
  • bevacizumab
  • combination therapy
  • eye
  • lucentis
  • macular degeneration
  • photodynamic therapy
  • ranibizumab
  • retina


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