Reversed isoniazids: Design, synthesis and evaluation against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Malkeet Kumar, Kawaljit Singh, Andile H. Ngwane, Fahreta Hamzabegovic, Getahun Abate, Bienyameen Baker, Ian Wiid, Daniel F. Hoft, Peter Ruminski, Kelly Chibale

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Novel reversed isoniazid (RINH) agents were synthesized by covalently linking isoniazid with various efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) cores and their structural motifs. These RINH agents were then evaluated for anti-mycobacterial activity against sensitive, isoniazid mono-resistant and MDR clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis and a selected number of compounds were also tested ex vivo for intracellular activity as well as in the ethidium bromide (EB) assay for efflux pump inhibition efficacy. The potency of some compounds against various strains of M. tuberculosis (4a–c, 7 and 8; H37Rv-MIC99 ≤1.25 µM, R5401-MIC99 ≤2.5 µM, X_61-MIC99 ≤5 µM) demonstrated the potential of the reversed anti-TB agent strategy towards the development of novel anti-mycobacterial agents to address the rapidly growing issue of resistance. Further, macrophage activity with >90% inhibition by 1a–c and 3b (MIC90 ≤13.42 µM) and inhibition of EB efflux demonstrated by these compounds are encouraging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)833-844
Number of pages12
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 15 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemosensitizers
  • Efflux pump inhibitors
  • Efflux pumps
  • Ethidium bromide
  • M. tuberculosis
  • Macrophages

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    Kumar, M., Singh, K., Ngwane, A. H., Hamzabegovic, F., Abate, G., Baker, B., Wiid, I., Hoft, D. F., Ruminski, P., & Chibale, K. (2018). Reversed isoniazids: Design, synthesis and evaluation against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 26(4), 833-844.