OBJECTIVE Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) carry a risk of rupture and subsequent morbidity or mortality unless fully treated. AVMs in pediatric patients are known to occasionally recur after obliteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of AVM recurrence following angiographically confirmed obliteration in children. METHODS Consecutive pediatric AVMs treated at a single center were identified from a prospective database. Patients with angiographically confirmed AVM obliteration following treatment were included in this study. Associations between AVM recurrence and patient or procedural factors were characterized using the two-tailed Fisher exact test or Mann-Whitney U-test. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the Clarivate Web of Science with defined search criteria, and eligible studies were included alongside this study cohort in a meta-analysis. Rates of AVM recurrence following obliteration were pooled across studies with a random-effects model and reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS Recurrence after angiographic confirmation of AVM obliteration was observed in 10.4% (7/67) of pediatric AVMs treated at the authors’ center. Patients with recurrent AVMs were significantly younger than those without recurrence (p = 0.002). In the meta-analysis, which included 1134 patients across 24 studies, the rate of recurrence was 4.8% (95% CI 3.0%–6.7%). The rate of AVM recurrence following radiosurgery was 0.7% (95% CI 0%–1.6%), which was significantly lower than the 8.5% rate (95% CI 5.0%–12.0%) following microsurgery. CONCLUSIONS Recurrence of obliterated brain AVMs is common in children. Recurrence is more common in young children and following microsurgery.
- arteriovenous malformation
- vascular disorders