Retinoic acid receptor-independent mechanism of apoptosis of melanoma cells by the retinoid CD437 (AHPN)

X. Zhao, K. Demary, L. Wong, C. Vaziri, A. B. McKenzie, T. J. Eberlein, R. A. Spanjaard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations

Abstract

Retinoic acid (RA) induces differentiation of S91 melanoma cells through activation of RA receptor (RAR)γ without affecting cell viability. The novel RARγ-agonist CD437 (AHPN), however, also induces concomitant apoptosis through an unknown mechanism which was investigated here. By utilizing DNA microarray analysis, five apoptosis-associated, CD437-induced transcripts (CITs) were identified. Interestingly, all CITs are also regulated by p53 in a DNA damage response, and consistent with this interpretation, CD437 was found to cause DNA adduct-formation. However, p53 is not required for CD437-dependent regulation of CITs. Among this set of genes, induction of p21WAF1/CIP1 is likely to be responsible for early S-phase growth-arrest of CD437-treated cells, whereas ei24 is a critical mediator of CD437-induced apoptosis in S91 cells. These data suggest an RAR-independent mechanism in which CD437 causes DNA adduct-formation, resulting in induction of a p53-independent DNA damage response, and subsequent growth-arrest and apoptosis. CD437-mediated DNA adduct-formation may also explain its apoptotic effects in other cell types.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)878-886
Number of pages9
JournalCell Death and Differentiation
Volume8
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • CD437
  • Differentiation
  • Melanoma
  • Retinoic acid receptor

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