The retina is a layered structure with well-characterized neuronal cell types and circuits. The inner retina is the site of complex synaptic processing. These synaptic interactions occur at the inner plexiform layer (IPL), the second retinal synaptic layer, and mediate the temporal and spatial visual processing. A diversity of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, released in the IPL, interact with a variety of receptors that can shape the visually evoked signal. This article reviews the pharmacology of the fast excitatory and the fast inhibitory synaptic mechanisms, as well as the neuromodulators that mediate visual processing in the inner retina.
- Glutamate transporter
- Inner plexiform layer