Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) improves survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Traditionally, filgrastim (Neupogen; recombinant G-CSF) has been used in as a single agent or in combination with plerixafor for stem cell mobilization for auto-HSCT. In Europe, a biosimilar recombinant G-CSF (Tevagrastim) has been approved for various indications similar to those of reference filgrastim, including stem cell mobilization for auto-HSCT; however, in the United States, tbo-filgrastim (Granix) is registered under the original biological application and is not approved for stem cell mobilization. In retrospective studies, stem cell mobilization with tbo-filgrastim has shown similar efficacy and toxicity as filgrastim, but no prospective studies have been published to date. We have conducted the first prospective randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of tbo-filgrastim in combination with plerixafor with that of filgrastim in combination with plerixafor for stem cell mobilization in patients with MM and NHL. This is a phase 2 prospective randomized (1:1) open-label single-institution noninferiority study of tbo-filgrastim and filgrastim with plerixafor in patients with MM or NHL undergoing auto-HSCT. Here 10 µg/kg/day of tbo-filgrastim/filgrastim was administered s.c. for 5 days (days 1 to 5). On day 4 at approximately 1800 hours, 0.24 mg/kg of plerixafor was administered s.c. Apheresis was performed on day 5 with a target cumulative collection goal of at least 5.0 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. The primary objective was to compare day 5 CD34+ cells/kg collected. Secondary objectives included other mobilization endpoints, safety, engraftment outcomes, and hospital readmission rate. A total of 97 evaluable patients were enrolled (tbo-filgrastim, n = 46; filgrastim, n = 51). Tbo-filgrastim was not inferior to filgrastim in terms of day 5 CD34+ cell collection (mean, 11.6 ± 6.7 CD34+ cells/kg versus 10.0 ± 6.8 CD34+ cells/kg. Multivariate analysis revealed a trend toward increased mobilization in the tbo-filgrastim arm, but this was not statistically significant. The tbo-filgrastim and filgrastim arms were similar in all secondary endpoints. Tbo-filgrastim is not inferior in efficacy and has similar safety compared to reference filgrastim when used for stem cell mobilization in patients with MM and NHL. Granix can be safely used instead of Neupogen for stem cell collection in patients undergoing auto-HSCT for MM or NHL. The study is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02098109.
- Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation