Response to category II tracings: Does anything help?

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Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is the most commonly used tool to screen for intrapartum fetal hypoxia. Category II EFM is present in over 80% of laboring patients and poses a unique challenge to management given the breadth of EFM features that fall within this category. Certain Category II patterns, such as recurrent late or recurrent variable decelerations, are more predictive of neonatal acidemia than others. A key feature among many published algorithms for Category II management is the use of intrauterine fetal resuscitation techniques including maternal oxygen administration, amnioinfusion, intravenous fluid bolus, discontinuation of oxytocin, and tocolytic administration. The goal of intrauterine resuscitation is to prevent or reverse fetal hypoxia. This is most likely to be successful if the etiology of the Category II EFM pattern is identified and targeted resuscitative measures are performed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number151217
JournalSeminars in Perinatology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • Category II
  • Elecronic fetal monitoring
  • Fetal hypoxia
  • Intrauterine resuscitation


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