Diseases of the cardiac conduction system can be debilitating and deadly. Electronic pacemakers are incredibly effective in the treatment of sinus and AV node dysfunction, yet there remain important limitations and complications. These issues have driven interest in the development of a biological pacemaker. Here, we review experimental progress in animal models and discuss future directions, with a focus on reprogramming endogenous cells in the heart to treat defects of rhythm and conduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14-20
Number of pages7
JournalTrends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


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