Transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) device closure is increasingly performed in extremely premature infants. Contrast angiography improves the procedural safety and effectiveness by precise anatomic delineation. Contrast nephropathy is a concern in clinically ill premature infants, especially with the presence of renal insufficiency. We hypothesized that the benefit of transcatheter PDA closure outweighs the harm of contrast nephropathy in extremely premature infants. A total of 160 infants underwent successful transcatheter (n = 59) and surgical (n = 101) PDA closure at a median age of 26 (7 to 78) days. The surgical group had a lower procedural weight (870 vs 960 g, p = 0.014). In the transcatheter group, serum creatinine decreased from 0.48 to 0.45 mg/100 ml at 24 hours (p = 0.003, n = 59) and decreased further to 0.37 mg/100 ml at 5 to 7 days after closure (p <0.001). Median contrast amount was 1.9 ml/kg (0.6 to 6.1). In 8 infants with pre-existing renal insufficiency who underwent transcatheter closure, serum creatine significantly improved from 1.44 to 1.36 mg/100 ml at 24 hours and 0.79 mg/100 ml at 5 to 7 days after closure (p <0.001). There was no difference in improvement of serum creatinine between transcatheter and surgical closure groups. In conclusion, despite the use of contrast, serum creatinine significantly improved with transcatheter PDA closure even in infants with pre-existing renal insufficiency. Contrast angiography should not be discouraged for transcatheter PDA closure because of the concern for contrast nephropathy in extremely premature infants.