Objective: To characterize the pattern of neuron loss in hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) and age-related diseases and to evaluate its contribution to cognitive impairment in the elderly. Methods: Participants (n = 1,361) came from longitudinal observational studies of aging at the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Washington University (St. Louis, MO). Relative neuron loss in the hippocampus of HS-Aging was measured using unbiased stereological methods. Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) proteinopathy, a putative marker of HS-Aging, was assessed. Clinical and cognitive data were analyzed using parametric statistical methods. Results: Ninety-three cases had HS-Aging (6.8%), 8 cases had “pure” HS-Aging, and 37 cases had comorbid intermediate or high Alzheimer's disease neuropathological change (i/h ADNC). Relative neuron loss (ratio of neuron number in hippocampal subfield CA1 to the neuron number in parahippocampal gyrus) was 0.15 for HS-Aging; this was significantly lower than 0.64 for i/h ADNC and 0.66 for control cases (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001; p = 0.0003, respectively). TDP-43 proteinopathy was present in 92.4% of HS-Aging cases, higher than that in i/h ADNC (52%) and control (25%) cases. Pure HS-Aging cases were more likely to have cognitive impairment in the memory domain. Interpretation: Relative neuron loss in the hippocampus compared to the parahippocampus gyrus may be useful in distinguishing HS-Aging in the context of comorbid ADNC. HS-Aging contributes to cognitive impairment, which phenotypically resembles AD dementia. TDP proteinopathy is a frequent comorbidity in HS-Aging and may contribute to cognitive impairment to a modest degree. Ann Neurol 2018;84:749–761.