Relationships between spinal landmarks and skin surface markers

Jack R. Engsberg, Lawrence G. Lenke, Keith H. Bridwell, Mary L. Uhrich, Connie M. Trout

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

This investigation determined relationships between coronal vertical alignment (CVA) and sagittal vertical alignment (SVA) variables calculated from radiographs and surface markers representing bony landmarks. Biplanar radiographs were taken on 28 subjects (standing) after 2 metallic surface markers were placed on the skin superficial to C7 and S2. The CVA-R and SVA-R were measured on the radiographs. Similar variables were calculated from the surface markers (CVA-P-R, SVA-P-R). Correlation between CVA-R and CVA-P-R was 0.894 (p < 0.000), and between SVA-R and SVA-P-R was 0.946 (p < 0.000). Results lead to three recommendations: (1) obtain surface marker data when radiographs are taken to establish relationships between the two sets of data, (2) take care in providing instructions to the subjects if measures are to be taken at different times, and (3) observe caution in interpreting results when simultaneous x-ray and surface marker data were not recorded.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)94-97
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Applied Biomechanics
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2008

Keywords

  • Radiographs
  • Spinal reconstructive surgery
  • Surface markers

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