Aim People with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have a high incidence of musculoskeletal disorders thought to be influenced by high non-enzymatic advanced glycated end-products (AGEs). The goals of this study were to determine differences in shoulder activity level and AGEs in people with T2DM compared to matched controls, and to determine factors associated with shoulder pain and disability. Methods Eighty-one participants, T2DM (n = 52) and controls (n = 29), were examined for magnitude and duration of shoulder activity (measured using accelerometers), skin intrinsic florescence (SIF) as a surrogate measure of AGE level, and the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) as a self-report of shoulder pain and disability. Results Compared with controls, T2DM participants had 23% less shoulder activity (p = 0.01), greater SIF level (3.6 ± 1.7 vs 2.7 ± 0.6 AU, p = 0.01), less shoulder strength (p < 0.05), and the duration of their shoulder activity was moderately associated (r = 0.40; p < 0.01) with reported shoulder pain and disability. Shoulder pain and disability were not related to SIF level. Conclusions Persons with T2DM have higher SIF levels and shoulder symptoms and disability indices than controls. Research is needed to determine if a shoulder mobility intervention to increase strength and mobility can help decrease shoulder pain and disability.
- Advanced glycation end products
- Shoulder limited joint mobility
- Skin intrinsic fluorescence
- Type 2 diabetes