This study examined whether preschool children differed on measures of psychosocial functioning both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One hundred and thirty-two children who varied in levels of body fat participated in the study along with their natural parents. Results indicated that the children did not differ in levels of self-esteem and family functioning as a function of their body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly (but significantly) correlated with body fat at 1 and 2 years, and father's perception of family functioning predicted body fat at 1 year only. Results suggested that childhood obesity may not develop as a result of psychosocial factors.