Relationship between Mixed Donor–Recipient Chimerism and Disease Recurrence after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

National Institutes of Health, Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mixed donor chimerism after hematopoietic cell transplantation for sickle cell disease (SCD) can result in resolution of disease symptoms, but symptoms recur when donor chimerism is critically low. The relationship between chimerism, hemoglobin S (HbS) level, and symptomatic disease was correlated retrospectively in 95 patients who had chimerism reports available at day 100 and at 1 and 2 years after transplantation. Recurrent disease was defined as recurrence of vaso-occlusive crises, acute chest syndrome, stroke, and/or HbS levels > 50%. Thirty-five patients maintained full donor chimerism (myeloid or whole blood) through 2 years. Donor chimerism was less than 10% (defined as graft failure) in 13 patients during this period. Mixed chimerism was reported in the remaining 47 patients (range, 10% to 94%). The lowest documented donor chimerism without symptomatic disease was 26%. Of 12 surviving patients with recurrent disease, 2 had recurrence of symptoms before documented graft failure (donor chimerism of 11% and 17%, respectively). Three patients underwent second transplantation for graft failure. None received donor leukocyte infusion to maintain mixed chimerism or prevent graft failure. We conclude stable donor chimerism greater than 25% is associated with resolution of SCD-related symptoms, and HbS levels in transplant recipients should be interpreted in context of the sickle trait status of the donors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2178-2183
Number of pages6
JournalBiology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Volume23
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2017

Keywords

  • Disease symptoms
  • Mixed chimerism
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Transplant

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