Dietary, activity, and body weight differences in high- and low-restrained eaters and the independent impact of dietary restraint on body weight change were evaluated in 287 adults (141 men, 146 women) followed over a 1-year period. Analyses of measures of energy intake, physical activity, and dietary restraint indicated that high-restrained eaters did not differ in physical activity compared to low-restrained eaters at baseline but were ingesting significantly fewer kcal/lb and a higher percentage of the diet from fat. Body mass was significantly greater in both high-restrained men and high-restrained women than in their low-restrained counterparts. Regression modeling procedures revealed that weight and body mass at baseline were related to weight gain in men. In contrast, weight gain in women was predicted by baseline weight and higher restraint scores. These results indicate that dietary restraint is associated with weight gain in women but not in men.