The protein kinase mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) plays a critical role in the regulation of cell death. Recent studies suggest that MST1 mediates oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death by phosphorylating the transcription factor FOXO3 at serine 207, a site that is conserved in other FOXO family members. Here, we show that MST1-induced phosphorylation of FOXO1 at serine 212, corresponding to serine 207 in FOXO3, disrupts the association of FOXO1 with 14-3-3 proteins. Accordingly, MST1 mediates the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 in primary rat cerebellar granule neurons that are deprived of neuronal activity. We also find a requirement for MST1 in cell death of granule neurons upon withdrawal of growth factors and neuronal activity, and MST1 induces cell death in a FOXO1-dependent manner. Finally, we show that the MST1-regulatory, scaffold protein Nore1 is required for survival factor deprivation induced neuronal death. Collectively, these findings define MST1-FOXO1 signaling as an important link survival factor deprivation-induced neuronal cell death with implications for our understanding of brain development and neurological diseases.