Aberrant phospho-signaling is a hallmark of cancer. We investigated kinase-substrate regulation of 33,239 phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) in 77 breast tumors and 24 breast cancer xenografts. Our search discovered 2134 quantitatively correlated kinase-phosphosite pairs, enriching for and extending experimental or binding-motif predictions. Among the 91 kinases with auto-phosphorylation, elevated EGFR, ERBB2, PRKG1, and WNK1 phosphosignaling were enriched in basal, HER2-E, Luminal A, and Luminal B breast cancers, respectively, revealing subtype-specific regulation. CDKs, MAPKs, and ataxia-telangiectasia proteins were dominant, master regulators of substrate-phosphorylation, whose activities are not captured by genomic evidence. We unveiled phosphosignaling and druggable targets from 113 kinase-substrate pairs and cascades downstream of kinases, including AKT1, BRAF and EGFR. We further identified kinase-substrate-pairs associated with clinical or immune signatures and experimentally validated activated phosphosites of ERBB2, EIF4EBP1, and EGFR. Overall, kinase-substrate regulation revealed by the largest unbiased global phosphorylation data to date connects driver events to their signaling effects.