Introduction: Acute lung injury is common following cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for congenital heart surgery with the most severe injury in the dorsocaudal lung. Metabolomics offers promise in deducing mechanisms of disease states, providing risk stratification, and understanding therapeutic responses in regards to CPB/DHCA related organ injury. Objectives: Using an infant porcine model, we sought to determine the individual and additive effects of CPB/DHCA and lung region on the metabolic fingerprint, metabolic pathways, and individual metabolites in lung tissue. Methods: Twenty-seven infant piglets were divided into two groups: mechanical ventilation + CPB/DHCA (n = 20) and mechanical ventilation only (n = 7). Lung tissue was obtained from dorsocaudal and ventral regions. Targeted analysis of 235 metabolites was performed using HPLC/MS–MS. Data was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), ANOVA, and pathway analysis. Results: Profound metabolic differences were found in dorsocaudal compared to ventral lung zones by PCA and PLS-DA (R2 = 0.7; Q2 = 0.59; p < 0.0005). While overshadowed by the regional differences, some differences by exposure to CPB/DHCA were seen as well. Seventy-four metabolites differed among groups and pathway analysis revealed 20 differential metabolic pathways. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate significant metabolic disturbances between dorsocaudal and ventral lung regions during supine mechanical ventilation with or without CPB/DHCA. CPB/DHCA also leads to metabolic differences and may have additive effects to the regional disturbances. Most pathways driving this pathology are involved in energy metabolism and the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and reduction–oxidation pathways.
- Acute lung injury
- Cardiopulmonary bypass
- Congenital heart disease surgery
- Kynurenine metabolism
- Pathway analysis