Refining the reproducibility of a murine model of stress-induced reversible cardiomyopathy

Tomohiro Hayashi, Sajal K. Tiwary, Kenji Rowel Q. Lim, Cibele Rocha-Resende, Attila Kovacs, Carla Weinheimer, Douglas L. Mann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Despite the many advantages of isoproterenol (Iso)-induced models of cardiomyopathy, the extant literature suggests that the reproducibility of the Iso-induced stress cardiomyopathy phenotype varies considerably depending on the dose of Iso used, the mode of administration of Iso (subcutaneous vs. intraperitoneal), and the species of the animal that is being studied. Recently, we have shown that a single injection of Iso into female C57BL/6J mice provokes transient myocardial injury that is characterized by a brisk release of troponin I within 1 h, as well as a self-limited myocardial inflammatory response that is associated with increased myocardial tissue edema, inferoapical regional left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities, and a transient decrease in global LV function, which were completely recovered by day 7 after the Iso injection (i.e., stress-induced reversible cardiomyopathy). Here we expand upon this initial report in this model by demonstrating important sexually dimorphic differences in the response to Iso-induced tissue injury, the ensuing myocardial inflammatory response, and changes in LV structure and function. We also provide information with respect to enhancing the reproducibility in this model by optimizing animal welfare during the procedure. The acute Iso-induced myocardial injury model provides a low-cost, relatively high-throughput small-animal model that mimics human disease (e.g., Takotsubo cardiomyopathy). Given that the model can be performed in different genetic backgrounds, as well as different experimental conditions, the acute Iso injury model should provide the cardiovascular community with a valuable nonsurgical animal model for understanding the myocardial response to tissue injury. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study highlights the importance of sexual dimorphism with respect to isoproterenol injury, as well as the importance of animal handling and welfare to obtain reproducible results from investigator to investigator. Based on serial observations of animal recovery (locomotor activity and grooming behavior), troponin I release, and inflammation, we identified that the method used to restrain the mice for the intraperitoneal injection was the single greatest source of variability in this model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H229-H240
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • inflammation
  • reproducibility
  • sex
  • tissue injury


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