Refined moderation analysis with categorical outcomes in precision medicine

Xiaogang Su, Youngjoo Cho, Liqiang Ni, Lei Liu, Elise Dusseldorp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Moderation analysis is an integral part of precision medicine research. Concerning moderation analysis with categorical outcomes, we start with an interesting observation, which shows that heterogeneous treatment effects could be equivalently estimated via a role exchange between the outcome and the treatment variable in logistic regression models. Hence two estimators of moderating effects can be obtained. We then established the joint asymptotic normality for the two estimators, on which basis refined inference can be made for moderation analysis. The improved precision is helpful in addressing the lack-of-power problem that is common in search of moderators. The above-mentioned results hold for both experimental and observational data. We investigate the proposed method by simulation and provide an illustration with data from a randomized trial on wart treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)470-486
Number of pages17
JournalStatistics in medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 20 2023


  • heterogeneous treatment effects
  • Logistic regression
  • Moderation analysis
  • Precision medicine


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